“Nothing in my life has required more courage, curiosity, and humility than the exploration of race and few efforts have meant so much.”

- Jacqueline Battalora, PH.D., J.D., M.T.S -

photo of stack of books reading: Ruether editor Gender, Ethnicity, & Religion, Birth of a White Nation, Journal of Bisexuality, Bisexuality and Same-Sex Marriage
Battalora Publications—Books/Articles/Chapters

The Invention of White People and Its Relevance Today

New York, May 17, 2021 Birth of A Whte Nation Second Edition examines the social construction of race through the invention of white people. Surveying colonial North American law and history, the book interrogates the origins of racial inequality and injustice in American society, and details how the invention still serves to protect the ruling elite to the present day.

The second edition documents the proliferation of ideas imposed and claimed throughout history that have conspired to give content, form, and social meaning to one's racial classification. Beginning its expanded narrative with the development of diverse Native American societies through contact with European colonizers in the Tidewater region, and progressing to the emigration of Mexicans, Irish, and other "non-whites," this new edition addresses the ongoing production and reproduction of whiteness as a distinct and dominant social category. It also looks to the future by developing a new, applied framework for countering racial inequality and promoting greater awareness of antiracist policies and practices.

Birth of A White Nation will be of great interest to students, scholars, and general readers seeking to make sense of the dramatic racial inequities of our time and to forge an antiracist path forward.


Drawing on history and law, Birth of White Nation reveals how, when, where, and why a group called "white people" was first created in colonial North America. This origin story of white-body supremacy examines how a core organizing feature of U.S society came to be. Birth of a White Nation is an important read for anyone who seeks to understand the key developments that have kept us—and continue to keep us—from being a united nation.

—Resmaa Menakem, author of My Grandmother's Hands and Rock the Boat

We cannot unmake racism if we don't know how we made race. Dr. Battalora provides an accessible foundation for the antiracism project. Her work has been indispensable to mine.

—Robin DiAngelo, Ph.D. Author of White Fragility and Nice Racism

Do you want to understand the history of the term "white people" in the United States and how it has shaped our laws and identities? Read Birth of A White Nation by Jacqueline Battalora. A clearly written and illuminating book.

—Rosemary Radford Ruether, author of 34 books including, Sexism and God Talk


“Whiteness Competency: How Not to be BBQ Betty,” in Teaching Beautiful Brilliant Black Girls, eds. O. Delano-Oriaran, M. Penick, S. Arki, A. Michael, O. Swindell, E. Moore (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2021).

“White What?” A Matter of Spirit 128, Fall 2020.

“’Black Lives Matter’ is important because all lives matter,” in In Concert: An Integrated Approach to Reading and Writing 3rd ed. K. T. McWhorter (New York: Pearson Press, 2020).

“White Privilege and What to do About it” A Matter of Spirit 122, Spring 2019

“Birth of A White Nation” Journal of Understanding and Dismantling Privilege, vol. 5 no.1, 2015, 1-12.

“‘Common knowledge’ and the legal construction of race: Constructions of white people through U.S. expansionism, naturalization and immigration law.” 7 US-China L. Rev. No.10, 2010, 13-26.

“Supremacy by law: The one man one woman marriage requirement and antimiscegenation law.” Journal of Bisexuality, 7. No. 3/4, 2008 special issue, 145-169.

“Supremacy by law: The one man one woman marriage requirement and antimiscegenation law,” in M. P. Galupo, ed., Bisexuality and Same-Sex Marriage. (London: Routledge, 2009), 7-31.

“Doing Good Can Come With a Target On Your Back” (2019)In The Diversity Consultant Cookbook: Preparing for the Challenge. Eddie Moore, Jr., Art Munin, Marguerite Penick-Parks (Eds.). Streling, VA:  Stylus Publications.

“Whiteness: The workings of an ideology in American society and culture.” in Rosemary Radford Reuther (ed.), Gender, Ethnicity & Religion: Views from the Other Side. (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2002), 3-23.